Today is also the anniversary of Charlemagne's death (January 28, 814), the first Holy Roman Emperor.
"Thus Christendom gained a new kind of temporal leader and defender, whose very office symbolized, second only to the Church itself, its essential unity in life and faith. Charlemagne made this very clear in the extraordinary oath of loyalty which he required in 802 from all free men in his domains. In addition to personal loyalty to him and obedience to his laws and lawful orders, which had always been demanded, he now required each of his people to pledge to 'voluntarily strive according to his intelligence and strength to keep himself entirely in the holy service of God' and to refrain from any actions harmful to churches, widows, orphans, and strangers, all of whom were under the special protection of the Holy Roman Emperor. Canon Law as well as civil law must be obeyed."
-Warren Carroll, The Building of Christendom, An Emperor for Christendom, pg. 326
HT Greg Marco